Squatina squatina, Angelshark : fisheries, gamefish

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Squatina squatina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Angelshark
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Squatina squatina   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Squatina squatina
Picture by Hernández-González, C.L.

Classification / Names आम नाम | उपशब्द | Catalog of Fishes(वर्ग, प्रजाति) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

इलाज़मौबरांकी (शारक और रेज़) (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes (Angel sharks) > Squatinidae (Angel sharks)
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range पारिस्थितिकी

; समुद्री; खारा ड़िमरसल; औशिनोड़िरोमस (Ref. 51243); गहराई सीमा 5 - 150 m (Ref. 247).   Temperate; 63°N - 21°N, 19°W - 42°E

वितरण देश | ऐफ ऐ ओ क्षेत्र | Ecosystems | संयोग | Point map | भूमिका | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: southern Norway, Sweden and Shetland Islands to Morocco and West Sahara, including the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 247). Range and abundance declining 1severely throughout its range; proposed legal protection in Britain (Ref.58085). Appendix III (Mediterranean) of the Bern Convention (2002). Annex V of the OSPAR Convention (2010). The European Council Regulations 43/2009, 23/2010, 57/2011, 44/2012, 40/2013, 43/2014, 2015/104 and 2016/72 prohibit to fish for, to retain on board, to tranship and to land the S. squatina in all waters from the European Community (F. Osaer, pers.comm. 04/2016).

Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 102 - 169 cm
Max length : 183 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 247); 244.0 cm TL (female); common length : 150 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. ); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 80.0 kg (Ref. 35388)

Short description आकृति विज्ञान | मौरफोमैटरिक्स

पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 0; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 0. Broad flattened body, with enlarged pectoral and pelvic fins, no anal fin. Eyes and large spiracles dorsally. Gill openings at the sides of the head. The mouth is terminal. Coloration variable, from grey to reddish or greenish-brown with scattered small white spots and blackish dots dorsally (Ref. 78469). No ocelli on body (Ref. 247).

जीवविज्ञान     शब्द संग्रह (उदाहरणार्थ epibenthic)

A benthic species that occurs inshore, on coasts and along the continental shelf; may enter estuaries (Ref. 247, 58085). Found mainly on sand or mud bottoms; sluggish by day, lying buried with eyes protruding. Also utilizes areas with macroalgae, kelp or rocks (Ref. 88920). Nocturnal species, swims off bottom at night. Feeds mainly on flatfishes and other benthic fishes, but also on skates, crustaceans and molluscs, with one record of swallowed cormorant (Ref. 247, 28070). Moves to deeper waters during winter, returning to the shallower depths in the spring (Ref. 88187), moving northwards in summer. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449, 107715). Females generally grow larger than males (Ref. 58137, 107710, 107713, 107715). Detects weak electric fields generated by other organisms (e.g. potential prey) (Ref. 10311). The marine leech Stibarobdella macrothela is a common parasite (Ref. 107712) and the isopod Aegapheles deshaysiana a common micropredator (Ref. 107714) for this shark species in the Canary Islands. Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption, and possibly for oil and fishmeal (Ref. 247). Reaches 250 cm (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior परिपक्व अवधि | पुनरुत्पत्ति | मछलीऔ का अंडे देना | अंडे | Fecundity | लार्वा

Ovoviviparous, produce 7-25 pups/litter (Ref. 58085), 13.0 +/- 1.9 pups in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713) with litter number increasing with female size. Gestation period lasts for 8-10 months (born Dec-Feb in Mediterranean, July in England) (Ref. 58085), and +/- 6 months in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713). Size at birth ranges from 24-30 cm TL (Ref. 58085). Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Full term embryos weighed 189-200 g; no egg capsules found around ova or embryos (Ref. 107715). A biannual reproductive cycle is likely the case for this species (Ref. 32746), triannual cycle in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713).

Main reference Upload your references | संदर्भ | संयोजक : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | सहयोगीयो

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Critically Endangered (CR) (A2bcd); Date assessed: 12 July 2017

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic





Human uses

मात्स्यिकी: लघु वाणिज्य; आखेट मत्स्य: हां
FAO - मात्स्यिकी: landings, species profile; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

अधिक जानकारी

आम नाम
उपशब्द
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परभक्षी
ईकोटोकसीकोलौजी
पुनरुत्पत्ति
परिपक्व अवधि
मछलीऔ का अंडे देना
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
अंडे
Egg development
Age/Size
बाढ़
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
मौरफोमैटरिक्स
आकृति विज्ञान
लार्वा
लारवल गतिकी
भर्ती
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Mass conversion
सहयोगीयो
तस्वीरे
Stamps, Coins Misc.
ध्वनि
सिगुयटिरा
रफ्तार
तैरने के प्रकार
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Otoliths
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इंटरनेट स्रोत

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.7 - 19.4, mean 11.4 °C (based on 854 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00368 - 0.02062), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179):  निम्न, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 4.5 - 14 वर्ष। (Fec=9-20).
Prior r = 0.27, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.47, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.8 [1.3, 54.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.274 [0.047, 1.047] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.0, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 1.04 [0.36, 2.94] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.7 [3.0, 70.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.4 [2.8, 82.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.368 [0.092, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);