Squatina squatina, Angelshark : fisheries, gamefish

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Squatina squatina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Angelshark
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Squatina squatina   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Squatina squatina
Picture by Hernández-González, C.L.

Classification / Names ຊື່ສາມັນ | ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ | Catalog of Fishes(ຕະກຸນ, ຊະນິດ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກອ່ອນ (ເຊັ່ນ: ປາສະຫລາມ, ປາຜາໄລ) (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes (Angel sharks) > Squatinidae (Angel sharks)
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range ນິເວດວິທະຍາ

; ສັດທະເລ; ນ້ຳກ່ອຍ ອາໄສຢູ່ໃກ້ໜ້າດິນໃຕ້ພື້ນທ້ອງນ້ຳ; ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍໃນສະເພາະມາະຫາສະມຸດ (Ref. 51243); ລະດັບຄວາມເລິກ 5 - 150 m (Ref. 247).   Temperate; 63°N - 21°N, 19°W - 42°E

ການແຜ່ກະຈາຍ ປະເທດ | ເຂດ FAO | ລະບົບນິເວດ | ການປະກົດຕົວ | Point map | ການແນະນຳ | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: southern Norway, Sweden and Shetland Islands to Morocco and West Sahara, including the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 247). Range and abundance declining 1severely throughout its range; proposed legal protection in Britain (Ref.58085). Appendix III (Mediterranean) of the Bern Convention (2002). Annex V of the OSPAR Convention (2010). The European Council Regulations 43/2009, 23/2010, 57/2011, 44/2012, 40/2013, 43/2014, 2015/104 and 2016/72 prohibit to fish for, to retain on board, to tranship and to land the S. squatina in all waters from the European Community (F. Osaer, pers.comm. 04/2016).

Length at first maturity / ຂະໜາດ / ນ້ຳໜັກ / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 102 - 169 cm
Max length : 183 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 247); 244.0 cm TL (female); common length : 150 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. ); ນ້ຳໜັກສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍຈັດພີມມາ: 80.0 kg (Ref. 35388)

Short description ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ | ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…

ຄີ (ໜາມ)ແຂງຢູ່ຫຼັງປາ (ທັງໝົດ): 0; ຄີຫຼັງຂອງປາ (ຄີອ່ອນ) (ທັງໝົດ): 0. Broad flattened body, with enlarged pectoral and pelvic fins, no anal fin. Eyes and large spiracles dorsally. Gill openings at the sides of the head. The mouth is terminal. Coloration variable, from grey to reddish or greenish-brown with scattered small white spots and blackish dots dorsally (Ref. 78469). No ocelli on body (Ref. 247).

ຊີວະສາດ     ຄຳແປສັບ (ຕ.ຢ. epibenthic)

A benthic species that occurs inshore, on coasts and along the continental shelf; may enter estuaries (Ref. 247, 58085). Found mainly on sand or mud bottoms; sluggish by day, lying buried with eyes protruding. Also utilizes areas with macroalgae, kelp or rocks (Ref. 88920). Nocturnal species, swims off bottom at night. Feeds mainly on flatfishes and other benthic fishes, but also on skates, crustaceans and molluscs, with one record of swallowed cormorant (Ref. 247, 28070). Moves to deeper waters during winter, returning to the shallower depths in the spring (Ref. 88187), moving northwards in summer. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449, 107715). Females generally grow larger than males (Ref. 58137, 107710, 107713, 107715). Detects weak electric fields generated by other organisms (e.g. potential prey) (Ref. 10311). The marine leech Stibarobdella macrothela is a common parasite (Ref. 107712) and the isopod Aegapheles deshaysiana a common micropredator (Ref. 107714) for this shark species in the Canary Islands. Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption, and possibly for oil and fishmeal (Ref. 247). Reaches 250 cm (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ | ການສືບພັນ | ການວາງໄຂ່ | ໄຂ່ | ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ | ຕົວອ່ອນ

Ovoviviparous, produce 7-25 pups/litter (Ref. 58085), 13.0 +/- 1.9 pups in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713) with litter number increasing with female size. Gestation period lasts for 8-10 months (born Dec-Feb in Mediterranean, July in England) (Ref. 58085), and +/- 6 months in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713). Size at birth ranges from 24-30 cm TL (Ref. 58085). Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Full term embryos weighed 189-200 g; no egg capsules found around ova or embryos (Ref. 107715). A biannual reproductive cycle is likely the case for this species (Ref. 32746), triannual cycle in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713).

Main reference Upload your references | ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ | ຜູ້ປະສານງານ : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Critically Endangered (CR) (A2bcd); Date assessed: 12 July 2017

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic





Human uses

ການປະມົງ: ທີ່ເປັນການຄ້າໜ້ອຍ; ຊະນິດປາທີ່ຖືກນຳໃຊ້ເຂົ້າໃນການຫາເພື່ອເປັນເກມກິລາ: ແມ່ນ

ຂໍ້ມູນຕື່ມອີກ

ຊື່ສາມັນ
ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ
ການເຜົາໃໝ້ພະລັງງານໂດຍປ່ຽນທາດອາຫານໃນຮ່າງກາຍໃຫ້ກາຍເປັນຊີ້ນແລະໜັງ
ຜູ້ລ້າ
ການສຶກສາຜົນກະທົບຂອງສານຜິດທີ່ມີຜົນກະທົບຕໍ່ລະບົບນິເວດ
ການສືບພັນ
ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ
ການວາງໄຂ່
ການສັງລວມການວາງໄຂ່
ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ
ໄຂ່
Egg development
Age/Size
ການເຕີບໃຫຍ່
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…
ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ
ຕົວອ່ອນ
ການປ່ຽນແປງຂອງຕົວອ່ອນ
ການທົດແທນທີ່
ຄວາມອຸດົມສົມບູນ
BRUVS
ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ
ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ
ຂໍ້ມູນການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ
ສາຍພັນ
ກຳມະພັນ
ຄວາມຖີ່ຂອງກຸ່ມຖ່າຍທອດພັນ
ການຖ່າຍທອດທາງກຳມະພັນຈາກພໍ່ແມ່ຫາລູກ
ພະຍາດ
ການປຸງແຕ່ງ
Nutrients
Mass conversion
ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື
ຮູບ
Stamps, Coins Misc.
ສຽງ
ຫອຍມີພິດຊະນິດນຶ່ງທີ່ອາໄສໃນທະເລ
ຄວາມໄວ
ປະເພດການລອຍ
ເນື້ອທີ່ເຫືອກ
Otoliths
ສະໝອງ
ວິໄສທັດ

ເຄື່ອງມື

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ແຫຼ່ງອີນເຕີເນັດ

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.7 - 19.4, mean 11.4 °C (based on 854 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00368 - 0.02062), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
ຊັ້ນເຂດຮ້ອນ (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
ຄວາມຢືດຢຸ່ນ (Ref. 120179):  ຕຳ່, ປະຊາກອນຕຳ່ສຸດທີ່ໃຊ້ເວລາສອງເທົ່າ 4.5 - 14 ປີ (Fec=9-20).
Prior r = 0.27, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.47, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.8 [1.3, 54.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.274 [0.047, 1.047] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.0, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 1.04 [0.36, 2.94] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.7 [3.0, 70.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.4 [2.8, 82.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.368 [0.092, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);