Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 35 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 28°N - 18°S
Indo-Pacific: Chagos Islands to the Hawaiian, Marquesas, and Society Islands. Also reported from Australia (Ref. 2334) and New Caledonia (Ref. 13236).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Feeds small fishes, crabs, and prawns (Ref. 1602). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Inhabits sand bottoms among coral reefs in 2-23 m.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 29.4, mean 28.5 °C (based on 1140 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00076 (0.00029 - 0.00199), b=3.06 (2.84 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .