Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes
(Angel sharks) > Squatinidae
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lesueur.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 1 - 1375 m (Ref. 26938), usually ? - 128 m (Ref. 55306). Subtropical; 43°N - 9°N, 96°W - 58°W (Ref. 54904)
Western Atlantic: southern New England, USA to the Gulf of Mexico, Jamaica and Venezuela. Also in Columbia (Ref. 26938).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 92 - 107 cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); common length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6077)
A ray-shaped shark. Head narrowing to distinct neck at base of pectoral fins (Ref. 26938).
Occurs on the outer continental shelf and the upper slope. Found from shoreline to depths of 1,375 m (Ref. 26938). Benthic burrower; feeds on small bottom fishes, crustaceans and mollusks (Ref. 27549). Ovoviviparous. Will bite when captured and can inflict nasty lacerations with its trap-like jaws and pointed teeth.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00273 - 0.01920), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .