Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Stolothrissa: Greek, stole = suit + Greek, thrissa, -es = shad (Ref. 45335). More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; depth range 8 - 95 m (Ref. 36901). Tropical; 1°S - 10°S
Africa: Lake Tanganyika (Ref. 188, 3509, 28136), including Lukuga River from Kisimba-Kilia Falls (Ref. 93587) and Moba River (Ref. 45485). Introduced in Lake Kivu between 1958 and 1960 (Ref. 121351); although the introduction was apparently successful, the fish failed to reproduce (Ref. 28136, 36904).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 6.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967); common length : 7.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); max. published weight: 7.00 g (Ref. 36901)
soft rays: 16 - 17;
Vertebrae: 44. Diagnosis: Body slender, its depth about 17-22% of standard length; 13-14 pre-pelvic and 8-9 post-pelvic scutes, with pre-pelvic scutes not strongly keeled, beginning behind base of last pectoral finray, but post-pelvic scutes with sharp spines; maxilla blade about 2.25 times as long as its shaft, but not continued forward to hind tip of pre-maxilla; posterior supra-maxilla diamond-shaped or more or less rhomboidal, approximately symmetrical; lower gillrakers long and slender, 36-42; a distinct silver stripe along flanks, broadest over tips of pelvic fins (Ref. 188, 93833). It resembles Limnothrissa miodon of Lake Tanganyika, which is slightly deeper-bodied, has a larger eye, about equal to head length behind eye, and a maxilla blade continued forward to hind tip of pre-maxilla (Ref. 188).
A pelagic, lacustrine species, forming very large schools (Ref. 188, 36901, 121343). The juveniles tend to stay closer to the shore than those of 5 cm standard length or more (Ref. 188). They appear to spend daylight hours at a depth of 70-95 m, rising up to 8-15 m at night, especially on dark nights (Ref. 188, 36901). These migrations reflect also the plankton migration (Ref. 36901). It feeds on plankton (Ref. 36901, 93960, 121343, 121352), like prawns, shrimps, also copepods, chironomids, diatoms and algae (Ref. 188). It breeds at about 6 cm standard length, with ripe individuals present almost throughout the year, but major spawning in May-June and again in December-January, the adults moving inshore to breed; the eggs sink slowly (Ref. 188). It is caught with seine nets, often using lights (Ref. 188).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00190 - 0.01323), b=3.13 (2.91 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.29 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.62-2.66).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 540 [268, 1,109] mg/100g ; Iron = 4.13 [2.21, 7.23] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.7, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.452 [0.167, 1.216] g/100g ; Selenium = 46.4 [15.6, 118.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 25.1 [7.7, 79.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.96 [1.83, 4.71] mg/100g (wet weight);